Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Sample details Pages: 16 Words: 4836 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Cause and effect essay Did you like this example? Here are some guidelines for that beginner who interest to invest in gold. Gold is hot topic for investment recently. Gold is stated as safer for investment. The gold possess some rare features which are gold could as a medium of exchange, as a store of wealth to increase and store of its power. Normally, people will use the gold to store of wealth because the value of gold is always maintained stable. It also could against any change of depreciation of paper money. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Guidelines For A Beginner To Investing Finance Essay" essay for you Create order According the history of gold, gold is very stable asset even there is any others assets could replace of it. The attractiveness of gold is related in several aspects such as macroeconomic, geopolitical, monetary and systemic risk that cause the global financial system and economy. Gold is a successful and profitability investment due to its diversification and management of risk. The pyramid I below has shown the level of risk investment where the pyramid II has shown the instrument used to invest.Based on the pyramid I, the level risk of investment start from the bottom which is Foundation to the top which is Speculation. Thus, a healthy portfolio consist a wide range of assets including a series of equities with appeal to variety market, different countries, different view of risk conscious is important to be considered. In these uncertain times, caution and risk consciousness is crucially important and counterparty and systemic risk should be considered. The more important thing is to determine what amount of each asset class to have and to own assets that will whether the onslaught of inflation, deflation, stagflation and even hyperinflation. Some exposure to gold should be included in all diversified portfolios. A good rule of thumb would be minimum allocation relevant to the gold investment. Once there is a motive to push you to buy any investment like gold, and you have decided which form you are going to buy, there are several roles that your wish to portray. Are you a speculator, investor or saver? Do you wish to take a short term speculative position in gold? Are you investing for the short, medium or long term? Or are you diversifying, saving or using as a form of financial insurance? Gold Investment Pyramid The ascending order of the gold risk is insurance, investment/ saving, investment and speculation. If there any investors are seeking for the portfolio investment project, they could consider invest in gold. It is undeniable that gold has a long-term store of value, is an asset of last resort, is a highly liquid and is a good way to diversify your assets. One of the functions of gold could be stated as store of value because it fulfills all of the function of money. As we all know, there are four functions of money which are medium of exchange, standard of value, store of value, and source of liquidity. Money is portable, divisible, and indestructible, easily recognizes and always accepted a s form of payment. While any fluctuation of currency, gold withstand inflation and market fluctuation. It is a secure aspect of any investment portfolio. In addition, the price of gold is not affected by the companys profit unlike stocks and bonds. However, it is rely on the supply and demand, the rate of US dollar, inflation and interest rates. There is negative relationship between the price of gold and the price of stocks and bonds. When the market bottom out, gold generally increase in value, thereby stabilizing the investment portfolio. Normally, government or banks will hold physical gold to limit their losses in paper asset. In addition, household investors should also consider using a same successful hedge tactic to protect their own portfolios. Risk of gold There is no possible of any investment does not contain any risk. Basically, the point of views of investors is the concept of high risk high return. Risk averse of an investor will take low risk and low return investment, while the risk taker of investor will take high risk high return investment. Different investor has different degree of acceptance of the risk. There is no doubt that the financial instruments have 3 main types of risk which are credit risk, liquidity risk and market risk.Each of risk will affect the return of the investment. Credit risk is the risk that the possibility of debtor unable to cover required financial obligation. Next, the liquidity risk is the risk that the cash needed in shock and wish to sell the asset as soon as possible to convert the cash, but the buyer cannot be found. Last but not least is the market risk is the risk that the change of prices as a result from the uncertain situation or fluctuation of the economic environment. Risk is unpredictable in sometime. Investors may unable to predict what kind of the risk will meet due to the uncertain environment. For any investors who are interested in the investment in gold, there is a risk consideration that investors should understand. According to the guideline from Public bank, the returns on the GIA are subject to movements of international gold price and US dollar foreign exchange. Capital loss may incur as a result of untimely disposal of gold holdings under a depressed gold price. Apart from that, there is a warning from Public bank which is the return of gold investment account are subject to the gold price fluctuation and US dollar foreign exchange. The customer is remained that this product is not insured by Perbadanan Insurance deposit Malaysia. Gold does not have any credit risk because it is unique. Nobody will carry gold as a liability. It is because coupon and redemption payment will not be made, so it is no risk for gold. However, the bond, or the firm will go out of business, as for equity. In addition, effect of economic policies of the issuing country or undermined by inflation in the country will not bring any harmful or influence toward the value of gold. Apart from that, liquidity risk of gold is quite low as a result from 24 hours trading business hour. The transaction of gold among the world is conducted by 24 hours basis. It is because certain country may close the transaction while others country just only start the business transaction. The buyer of gold are comes from anywhere. For instance, jewellery field contains a lot of buyer to financial institutions, plenty of investment ways cater to the buyer like coins and bars, jewellery, future and options, exchange-traded funds, certificated and structured produ ct. In the fact, the transaction of the gold is dealing at not such big area to spreads and more rapidly than many competing diversifiers or even mainstream investment. Thus the gold market is deep and liquid. According to experience of the 1990s, it shows the gold price declined sharply. It is clearly represent that the gold is subject to market risk from the experience 1990s. The risk related to the gold price is totally different with other risk of asset. The reason of the golds attractiveness is portfolio diversifier. Investors no doubt wish to maximize the return and minimize the risk. In order to minimize the risk, many investors are seeking to receive more effective diversification in their portfolios by choosing the best alternative investment. Gold has strong return because it is not associated with other assets. The data below had shown the 5 year correlation of weekly returns on key assets classes and golf (USD), to June 2009. Source : Bloomberg, World Gold Council Since the gold attractiveness which is portfolio diversified, there is more and more banks agreement on gold. For instances, European central banks renew CBGA and stated that gold remains an important element of global monetary reserves. Except gold, other bonds or securities will be influenced by the pressure on the health government and corporate sector during the economic recession. Measurement for market risk is volatility. Volatility does not measure the direction of prices changes, merely their dispersion. The more volatile an asset lead to the riskier of the asset. However, the gold price is normally less volatile because of the depth and liquidity of the gold market which are supported by the availability of large above-ground stocks of gold. According to Money week magazine research, each type of gold has different risk consideration, cost, delivery and so forth. Now, let us take a look for each type golds risk, consideration, cost, delivery and so forth. Source : Money week- UKs Best selling Financial Magazine Gold investment advice Before going to make any investment, investors should do some research pertaining to what kind of investment the investors are going to invest, when is the right for investors to put the money in, How much investment amount should put in, and so forth. Investors should seek every aspect pertaining to the investment that investors want to invest. Thus, investors have an opportunity to look overall situation at different investment opportunities that are being suitable for investor. Confidence in traditional investment vehicles such pensions and equities as seen better days and many investors are still licking their wounds after the dotcom crash that has overshadowed investment markets since beginning of the decade( UK investment advice).However, over-confidence by the investors will lead to investment failure. It is because some investors may over-confidence in certain investment especially the investment consists low risk, then the investment will show hand and put all the asset of themselves into a basket of investment. Actually, this kind of behavior is wrong and make harmful for the investors. Normally, the investment adviser will advise the investor cannot to do it so, but the intense of the investors insist to do. Consequently, the investors may loss everything. So, investors nowadays ought to learn from this lesson. However, nowadays investors are far conscious of the need for low risk investments that bring solid growth in the long term compare to th e higher risk assets.According to the World Gold Council, the gold investment demand predicted to increase. The gold investment demand was higher than that for gold jewellery until the later 1960s and predicted an uptick in both in 2010 as investors flock to precious metal as a safe haven vehicle and the jewellery sector recovers (Globe and Mail, Martin Murenbeeled, chief economist). Therefore, it could possible attract many investors to invest or hold or buy the gold. 5There are some tips and advice for the investors as a guideline before they are going to invest in certain investment. First, the investors have to take a look from the reputable publication such as Business Week or Fortune. In practice, these kinds of publications provide point of view by certain famous economist or news of the gold investment market regularly. No doubt, these kind of publication possess a good name in several aspect of fields. 6Next, investors could look for some information from the journalists that work under the reputable publications. In addition, these publications will set up a QA site for people to ask the question. So the investors could post their queries on there about the gold investment. However, if the investors feel unsure or unsecure about the information that has been provided, investors could directly make call to them for getting further detail about the gold investment. Not only is the journalist from the pubilication, there also some journalists from the professional financial. In this kind of journalists, they will always update the information about market as it stands, and give accurate information on which best alternative chance for investor to make the investment. Advice for the investors is tried to look for the high quality newspaper or journalist in order to obtain more accurate information. It is no doubt that investors could find the clues or hints or tips from the international markets. The international markets will exhibits the news pertain the currently situation to the general field of gold trading. However, investor could not rely on the domestic market since it is affected by the localized issue. As we mentioned, the value of gold will not affected the issue of the political and economic downturn. No matter how fluctuation about the political event, the value of gold does share with it. Therefore, investors have to see through overall sectors that might cater any information for decision making. Moreover, overall prices of gold investment could be determined by the general economic situation in investors country. Investors should always get ready when there is any economic turn bad. It is because it might impact on the reaction of the gold market. Thus, investors ought to get ready against any change in investment and preparation of ways in order to minimize the loss. This preparation could be stated as Prevention is better than cure. In addition, some investors may get the gold market information from the media. Obviously, the report from media will more abstract sometime. Investors might misunderstand the information from the media. Apart from that, sometime the media disclose the information of gold with too optimistic or too pessimistic. Thus, the investors should not totally trust the information from the media. Investors should have the ability to analyze the every information that the investors obtain. Investors should more understand the every concept that might trigger any changes to the market before the investors entirely depend on the information from media for decision making. Therefore, it could reduce the possibility failure of the gold investment. There are some avoided actions that investors should take note. Investors do not listen to the myths that what it had figure out pertain to the investment. Investors must have the ability to distinguish the wrong or right information. Investors could not entirely rely on the belief of society. It might influence the decision making of the investors. Anyone could own the gold investment as the asset as long as they have the inclinations and drive to participate in the market. Normally, gold is split into smaller and traded at lower prices which that the investor could expect out if they compliance the mythical claims. Once the investors decide to hold the gold investment, there is no reason for the investors not join in the market. Besides that, investors do not make up the facts as they have gone through. Investors should make the gold investment follow the sound factual information. This can be very costly investment and therefore the investors have to ensure that they are ready to against the truth from the unexpected happening rather than speculation like gambling. It is better to get sound gold investment advice before proceed any further. Investors could get the information from the individual trader. Individual trader may provide some useful information because their job always related to the gold investment. Individual trader basically provides the information pertain to the investment of gold that may trigger any change on the market. Indeed, investors should not entirely trust on their information because individual trader might be working with the self-interest that is not immediately obvious. Some investors will invest in gold investment because of their family. They hear from their family member talks about how good of a certain investment. Actually, investors should not listen up the prediction of the family because they are not professional about the investment. Even their prediction or information might be wrong. So reliability the information from the family is low. However, if they are speaking from the experience then investors might listen it and seek for evidence whether the information from their experience is right or wrong. It is no doubt that it might be the individual tips or clues from them. So investors could make it as a reference, but not totally rely on. Some investors might use the fund from the pension to do the investment. Pension fund will you some advice. Pension fund manager might advice you to invest in gold in order to expand the potential of your portfolio. They are possible receive the bad risk when they take part in the process and disagree the decision had been made. You should keep contact with the pension fund manger if you are really interest invest in gold investment. 7Those investors who really interest invest in gold investment; they could seek help from the banks. Banks could always give the actual information and advice for the investors in anytime. Even banks will set out a special site for any investors need the consultation on the investment. Thus, bank will provide recommendation which gold product should investment. Investors need to be forefront of such efforts if investors are given the right to seek for any golden chance in variety aspect of investment. In fact investors are possible to have higher standards from the bank advisers. If anyone of the investor is consolidated with others, they could give the advisable to each other this is showing the mercy to the partner. Any objection from the majority rule, then the suggestion should be amended or delay it to operate. If lucky, the decision of any investment will be proved and follow what propose have been made. The internet is a rich source in gold investment opportunities for sure. Investor could find our as many as possible they want. No doubt, some of the information could be made by some fake investment advice. Even, not all the information provided in the internet are totally right. However, investor still be advised to seek the information as much as possible in order to fulfill the need before making decision. Determinants of Gold price What are the factors cause the price of gold to change?Based on the research from the World Gold Council Document, it exhibits that the gold price is determined by two sets of the factors which are supply and macro-economic factors. It is indirectly correlation between supply and price of gold. According to World Gold Council Documents economic study, the available supply of gold in the market is made up of three major above-ground sources. First, reclaimed scrap or gold reclaimed from jewellery and other industries such as electronic and dentistry; Second, official, or central bank, sales; Third, gold loan made to the market from official gold reserves for borrowing and lending purposes. However, US dollar is also negative relationship with the price of gold in term of the macro-economic factors, when inflation and gold tend to move in tandem with each other. Indeed, higher real interest rates are generally negative factors for gold. No one could deny that the value of the gold is very hard to determine because there is no underlying cash flow.According to private investors Mr. Adam Katz, he has done studies about applying the P/E concept to Gold. He looked at the money supply to determine the future gold price. He has used the TMS model which is M1, M2, MZM, or True Money Supply to indicate the relationship between the money supply and the factors of gold price. Based on the analysis from Mr. Adam Ktaz, gold is the leading indicator for money supply; not the other way around. In 1980s, the True Money supply grew higher the value of gold price. If the premium of gold price higher than TMS as result of the increase money supply in future. This also intervenes that increase in the money supply could arise without gold requirement increasing in value. Besides that, price of gold could be increased if the demand of gold shock increases. From the advice by Mr. Adam Ktaz, investors should find a best alternative approach to play the rising money supply. Treasuries and real estate have external risks outside of the money supply. Apart from that, Federal could reduce the excess liquidity. Therefore, gold can move significantly lower as expectations of money supply increase diminish. Let proceed further pertaining to the relationship between gold and money supply.There is evidence that the gold is an asset that has low correlation to most financial assets, both in expansionary and recessionary periods. This could be explained by the behavior of gold over the short-run or long-run. In a global context, effect of the money supply could influence on the performance of gold. For instance, there is an inversely relationship between dollar and the gold. It is shown that the gold is a better asset to invest than other assets like stocks and the bonds in times when inflation happens. Basically, the money supply is controlled and fixed by the central bank. Central bank uses the expansionary monetary policy when recessions occur. Central bank will lower the reserve ratio or lower the discount rate or increase the reserve auction in order to increase the excess reserves for the commercial banks. Thus, commercial banks will have more excess reserves make loan to the cust omer. In addition, this action will lead to the federal fund rate decrease. Even increase the money supply in the public, thus the interest rate fall linkage to the investment spending increase. Therefore, the aggregate demand of the country will increase. Ended up, the real GDP of the country will increase which mean that the expansionary monetary policy upward the pressure of the investment spending to improve the economic growth. Conversely, when inflation arises; Central bank would use the restrictive monetary policy to reduce the money supply in the public. Federal sells the bonds to increase the reserve ratio, increase the discount rate or decrease reserve auctions. This policy will cause the excess reserves decrease, thus commercial banks have less amount to loan out for customers. At the same time, the federal funds rate will increase linkage to the money supply falls. After that, the interest rate will raise as a result the investment spending decrease. At the end, the aggr egate demand decrease and the inflation decline. In conclusion, there is a directly relationship between money supply and gold can exist in either case. How could be say that? As mentioned earlier, increase the money supply will boost the economic growth because the interest rate fall stimulate the many investors more willing to do the investment including in gold investment. Nevertheless, as excess money enters the system and the economy remains stagnant, investors will seek for the investment is less risky in order to protect their wealth such gold. According the World Gold Councils report, there is evidence that money supply growth has an impact on future gold performance. 11There is some information about the determinant of gold price given by Mr. Zoher Doctor. He is a financial Planner. According to Mr.Zoher, the total gold supply to the market in each period from extraction is directly correlation with the lagged gold price. However, there is an inversely relationship between the movement of Dollar with the price of gold. All the determinant of price of gold should be seriously consider when the investors need to do some predict in the gold price. The table above show that determinants of price of gold. The gold of supply occupies the higher percentage influence the price of gold with 50%. The US dollar is second largest factor follow by the gold supply impact on the gold price. It is because the returns on the gold are subject to the movements of international gold price and US dollar foreign exchange. Determinants of the price of gold in terms of the Short-run and Long-run Here are some analysis pertaining to the price of gold in the long run period.According to the Eric J.Levin and Roert E. Wright, there are three posibles results to identical the determinant of gold price in the long run. First, the relationship between price of gold and the US price level is belong to the long term status. Second, the movement of price of gold and the US price level are move together in a statistically important long run relationship. It mean that the increase of US price level with 1 percent , the price of gold will follow to increase with 1 percent. In addition, it exhibit the gold is a long-term hedge against inflation. Third, long term relationship could be triggered from a wake of a shock., there is a slow revrsion back toward it. Based on the reseach from Eric J.Levin andRoert E.Wright, the estimate of error correction term is -0.019, which implies that each months error is about 2 per cent smaller than the previous month. In effect, in the aftermath of a shock, it typcaly takes around five year to eliminate two-thirds of the deviation from the long-term relationship between the price of gold and the US price level. However, the price of gold and US inflation are directly correlation ship to each other in the short-run. Any movement of the price of gold will be directly affected by the any fluctuation in US inflation, US inflation volatility and credit risk. Conversely, any modify in the price of gold and the changes in the US dollar trade-weighted exchange rate and the gold lease rate are inversely relationship. Gold would become as the inflation hedge. The reason is if the dollar deprecation will reduce the gold price to the outsider the US, which will increase their demand for gold and thus increase the dollar price of gold or if dollar depreciation will rose US inflation. Source: World Gold Council Prediction the price of gold 2010 13In order to estimate what is the price of gold in 2010, there are some should take into consideration such as global economic trens, the strategy used and get ready when a depreciate of dollar, and inflationary rate. The dealing price of the gold may fluactuate above the 1000 dollars per ounce basd on the prediction in the December 2009 to 2010. Even, at the end of year, the price could boost up to the 1500 dollars per ounce. Such case may trigger double loss for the investor if they afraid it will be just for short lived. In addition, another prediction show that the price may decline to less than 800 dollar per ounce in the following year which close to end of 2010 or 2011. Based on the resource from CNBC Stock Blog and CNBC TV interview, is it wild fold preices expected for 2010? Actully it is unable to estimate the real gold price in 2010. The reason is too much of uncertainty may happen. In any how, investor should be careful to deal with thhis investment. Some of the predition is just for information and forecast for gold price in 2010, it might not really truth actually. What is reason to predict that the higher gold price in 2010? One of reason is the price of gold keep increase from the year 2006 to 2009 with the 400 dollar per ounce to 1,100 and above dollar. In the past, function of gold is used to against the depreciation of dollar. It is because the gold unlike currency and it would not affect by the economic situation. There are negative relationship bewteen gold and currency. Nevertheless, gold is always quoted per ounce in US dollar. Therefore, when the dollar depreciate , investor will try to look for the best althernative to grabs more value in the dollar. Other reason is in pratice, central banks will keep gold as a the reserves. If central banks use net buying of gold as a result of the pressure upward the price goes up. Conversly, it the central bank sell, subsidy provided with the price per ounce. Well, next factor is futures and commodities needed is keep increasing by the investors. It will trigger and raise the value of gold because of the interest rate of investment increase as well. Interactive Gold Price Chart Source: www.GoldAlert.com Gold Investment News First,Gold Stock Divergence case highlighted a few month ago is still in place.(Brian Hunt in Steve Sjuggeruds Daily Wealth. The changes and the movement of Gold Mining stocks and the US stock Market are at the same speed. The Boad market kept declined. However, gold stock still maintained solid, keep to strength in gold itself. Based on the performance chart provided by Steve Sjuggerud, divergence is still in place. Gold Mining Stocks(the black lne) are showing positive returns and climbing. The SP 500 (the Blue line) is showing negative returns and falling. Next news pertaining to the gold is The worlds anti-dollar.Ready For A Dollar Collapse? (David Bradshaw). Can be the gold to be a currency As we hear before, gold is a commodity, no different with others. According to the Paul Bodsky, gold is a currency whose daily price is a gauge of the markets concern about the potential diminishment of the purchasing power of the dollar and other paper currency. Assume what he say is right, there will no inflation or deflation occur in the economic, and cause a possible real issue for gold market. Source from: Federal Reserve; WSJ research
Friday, May 15, 2020
In the seventeenth century, England Puritans noticed that the Church of England was tolerating too many practices that were associated with the Church of Rome. The Puritans frowned upon this. The Puritans held a high view of scripture and believed that the English Reformation had not gone far enough in reforming the church (The Puritan Beliefs, 2004). The England Puritans desired to Ã¢â¬ËpurifyÃ¢â¬â¢ and change the church from within, however it was unsuccessful in England and Puritans relocated. In the early-mid seventeenth century, thousands of England Puritans migrated from England to North America, primarily New England, to practice religious freedom. (What is Puritanism and what did the Puritans believe?, 2015) The PuritansÃ¢â¬â¢ very conservative view on religion and the idea of purifying the Church of England led them to live and worship as God would like them to. Because of their view on religion, any acts/behaviors that seemed unusual or abnormal was thought to be the work of the devil. This lead to a series of court cases involving the accusations of persons doing witchcraft/interacting with the devil, also known as the Salem witch trials. The Salem witch trials began in February 1692 in Salem Village, Massachusetts. It all started with a group of young girls that claimed to be possessed by the devil that started all of the mayhem soon to follow. The allegedly possessed group of young girls began accusing several local women of witchcraft; the town broke out into massShow MoreRelatedThe Puritan Position On The Church Of England1123 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPuritanism Originally, Puritanism was considered a reform movement in the Church of England. The movement began during the late 16th century in England; however, it later spread to other Northern English territories in the New World (Collinson 5). The American Puritans laid the foundation for political, social and religious order. American Puritans assisted greatly in transforming the society, politics and religion of the American history. In a society that has adequate resources, an individualRead MoreHow Were The Puritans Different From The Pilgrims?961 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHow were the Puritans different from the Pilgrims? According to US History, a community of christians traveled across the ocean to an unknown land, different from the society they left behind, they called themselves Pilgrims. The Pilgrims made up the states of Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, which were the southern colonies. The Puritans made up the New England colonies, they were located in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut. The firstRead MoreThe Impact of Puritans on the Development of America and Its Influence on Modern Society1141 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesImpact of Puritans on the Development of America and its influence on modern society The Puritans came to America in search of greater freedom for religious liberty. They felt unable to worship and practice their theological perspectives as long as they were under the umbrella of the Church of England. The puritans views with the Church of England began differ greatly and they felt they could no longer be under their control. The Puritans decided that they needed to break free from the Church of EnglandRead MoreEssay on King James 1 and the Church1213 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesKing James 1 and the Church King James IV, of Scotland, seized the English throne in 1603 after the death of Elizabeth I and became James I of England. He was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and had been King of Scotland since 1567. During his reign, James increased the power of the monarchy making his rule absolute. James I was involved with every area of government. Under his rule Scotland and England were united, the King James Version of the Bible was published, William Shakespeare andRead MoreThe Reformation Of The England979 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSpain and France dominated when it came to owning land and the riches. England was suffering internally as a country. England longed for the riches and power that Spain and France had. England found a way to become number one in the hierarchy of the countries and began voyages in search of new land. Once England came upon the new land, they realized useful resources such as lumber, spices and other goods were in abundance. Settlements began to surface, creating several colonies that were categorizedRead MoreInfluence of the Puritan Faith on the Development of New England768 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe New England colonies rapidly developed though out the 1600s. This mass of development was influenced by the Puritans, whom founded a majority of the New England and several Middle colonies. The Puritan philosophies and values formed and directed the progress of the colonies. Socially, strict emphasis on church and community was influential in other colonial settlements as well. Politically, unification and representation derived from the Puritans. Economically, ideas such as fair pricing originatedRead MoreEssay about The Puritans - Creating the Perfect God Fearing Society1620 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Puritans - Creating the Perfect God Fearing Society The Puritans dream was to create a model society for the rest of Christendom. Their goal was to make a society in every way connected to god. Every aspect of their lives, from political status and employment to even recreation and dress, was taken into account in order to live a more pious life. But to really understand what the aspirations of the puritans were, we must first understand their beliefs. Ã¢â¬Å"Their goal was absolute purity;Read MorePuritanism Covenant and the Perfect Society in New England1536 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPuritanism Covenant and the Perfect Society in New England When the Puritans came to New England, they came to settle with a clear society in mind. Not only would this society be free from the persecution that they endured in Old England; it would be free to create what the leader of the religion referred to as a perfect society. In their attempt to escape the persecution they had come so accustomed to, they set up their own rigid belief system based on the inclusion of the human soul andRead MoreEssay about puritanism1242 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The Puritans dream was to create a model society for the rest of the Christians.. Their goal was to make a society in every way connected to god. Every aspect of their lives, from political views and employment to recreation and dress, was taken into account in order to live a more pious life. But to really understand what the aspirations of the puritans were, we must first understand their beliefs. The Puritans believed that a manÃ¢â¬â¢s only purpose in life was Ã¢â¬Å"to glorify God on earth and, if he wereRead MoreÃ¢â¬Å"in What Ways Did the Ideas and Values Held by the Puritans Influence the Political, Economic, and Social Development of the New England Colonies from 1630 Through the 1660Ã¢â¬â¢s?Ã¢â¬ 861 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the 1630s and the 1640s, the Puritans traveled to the colonies to detach from their opinion of a convoluted Church of England. They set up towns and started new lives that were all based on their idea of a pure religion. The Puritans definition of a pure religion did not include many of the ideas of the Church of England. They built the colonies and made a system based upon the idea that God was the most important aspect of life. Puritan ideas and values influenced the political, economic,
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
African Colonization through Literature: Things Fall Apart Vs. Heart of Darkness History is an extraordinary mix of truth and fiction. The dichotomy that is bred from different historic al perspectives opens the eyes of those who study history to the semi-fabricated nature of much of humanities past. For most of recorded history, events have been recorded and retold through the eyes of the victors. Only recently have people had the opportunity to view both sides of issues. The Western practice of free speech has allowed both victors and victims to tell their tal es. A glimmering example of differences in historical opinion pertains to the colonization of Africa by Europeans. For years the commonly accepted notion about Africa wasÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦European explorers found vast amounts of natural resources like ivory, tea and minerals. These discoveries set off the infamous Ã¢â¬Å"Scramble for AfricaÃ¢â¬ in which European countries rushed to colonize their Ã¢â¬Å"slice of Africa.Ã¢â¬ Europeans justified their imperialistic ways with the belief that they were doing a service to the indigenous populations and that it was their duty to spread their superior ways. This belief is best exemplified by the poem The White ManÃ¢â¬â¢s Burden by Rudyard Kipling. The poem was written as a result of the United States takeover of the Philippines. Therefore it does not directly pertain to the colonization of Africa but the same mindset that lead to the American occupation of the Philippines caused the European rape of Africa. In the poem the term Ã¢â¬Å"white manÃ¢â¬â¢s burden is a symbol of imperialism. Kipling is literally describing Western expansion as an onus of necessity that is charged to the Ã¢â¬Å"white man.Ã¢â¬ The poet continues by urging the white man to Ã¢â¬Å"fill full the mouth of famine and bid the sickness cease.Ã¢â¬ This passage demonstrates two things. First, the belief that Ã¢â¬Å"famineÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"sicknessÃ¢â¬ were prevalent in other cultures and, second, that the white man had the c apabilities to solve these afflictions. The previous two extracts from the poem give the impression that Westerners believed that other people in the world were helpless and that they would struggle to survive without the intervention of the Western world. InShow MoreRelatedHeart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad vs. Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe1476 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHeart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad and Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe are two novellas written to make a statement about the struggles of early societies. Both stories stir up moments of hope, anger, disappointment, despair, and enlightenment in an attempt to inform the reader of the injustices and societal differences during the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. Heart of Darkness tells the story from a European Colonist perspective while Things Fall Apart illustrates the outlook of the African tribe member being colonizedRead MoreHeart Of Darkness, By Joseph Conrad Essay2290 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesThe author of Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad, and the author of Things Fall Apart, Chinua Achebe, both present two stories written in completely different perspectives on the way whites and AfricanÃ¢â¬â¢s view each other. These two men also lived in completely different time eras than each other, along with opposite life styles which affected their view on their writings, for Joseph Conrad lived in the late 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, born in Ukraine, and Chinua Achebe in the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s, born in Nigeria. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
A look at various situational and social approaches to crime prevention. This paper compares and contrasts the relative merits of situational and social approaches to crime prevention. The writer takes us on an exploratory journey through the definition of each and then illustrates different situations that the approaches could be used for. Crime is a topic that can make the most secure person nervous. We work hard and we have homes and the thought of someone invading our safety and security is something that can shake the most stoic amongst us. Crime prevention has become a key focus in recent years and the prevention methods have undergone serious study. Crime prevention can general be divided into two categories, social and situational. Social prevention involves neighborhood groups and other means of societal teamwork while situational prevention is about preventing a crime in one instance through private means and methods. Each approach has a place in todays society and each approach has merit. We will write a custom essay sample on Prevention: The Key to Stress Free Living or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The key to the most effective prevention of crime is to understand the approaches and use them at the right time. Crime prevention that involves citizens as well as law enforcement personnel will be the key to a safer future. One of the most important aspects of crime prevention is reducing the opportunity for a crime to be committed.
Monday, April 13, 2020
Pay for Performance in the NFL Paper Statistics Project Pay for Performance in the NFL Introduction Pay for performance is a common theme throughout almost all organizations. Merit increases, performance bonuses for executives, and commissions for real estate salespeople are common examples of this concept. Even teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ pay in some states is linked to performance of their students. According to the Washington Post, the state of Florida instituted a policy that individual teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s raises and performance starting in 2007 will be tied directly to studentÃ¢â¬â¢s scores on standardized tests. This pay for performance concept has generally been accepted by the new Obama administration and may make its way into more common usage across the United States. In corporate America, examples of pay for performance are quite common, especially for top executives. Most year end bonuses are based on individuals meeting certain criteria established by the board of directors. These bonuses can be quite substantial. According to the Proxy Statement for Meredith Corporation, the total executive bonuses for the year 2007 exceeded $2. 5 million dollars. While pay for performance seems a reasonable concept in general, it is not without its critics. In education, there are a number of critics that question the fairness of the standardized test score results as a measure of teacher performance. They worry about teaching towards the exam at the expense of the overall education of the student. The criticism from Congress and much of the population of the United States over the bonuses paid to AIG executives questions how performance is actually measured. This paper will attempt to partially address the issue of pay for performance in professional sport, specifically in the National Football League. We will write a custom essay sample on Pay for Performance in the NFL specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Pay for Performance in the NFL specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Pay for Performance in the NFL specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Many different positions in football are difficult to obtain good performance measures. Offensive lineman, special teams players especially do not have good measures of individual performance that are tracked. This analysis will focuses on two groups of NFL players, quarterbacks and running backs where individual performance measures are readily available. Analytical Technique A correlation study will be done on a variety of performance measures and the salaries of both NFL quarterbacks and running backs to see which of the individual performance measures are most closely related to the individuals salaries. The assumption will be that the current salary is based on last yearÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. In addition to the correlation study, a multiple regression model with the best performance measures will be used to explain the relationship between the measures and salaries. This could be potentially used as a basis of predicting next yearÃ¢â¬â¢s salary for those players that are in contract discussions or are entering the market as free agents. The data for the study will be obtained from two primary sources, ESPN. com which tracks player performance measures for a number of years, and USATODAY. com for player salaries. Professional football players are compensated in a number of ways, base salary, signing bonus, and other bonuses. This study will be using base salary as the pay in the pay for performance analysis. Performance measures for quarterbacks will include: completion percentage, total passing yardage, touchdown completions, interceptions, and finally QB rating. Performance measures for running backs will include: total yards, yards per game, touchdowns, and fumbles lost. While other measures are collected it is felt that these are the most appropriate performance measures to use for both categories of NFL players. A sample of 22 NFL quarterbacks from the 2007 season was selected while a sample of 13 NFL running backs from 2007 was used. RESULTS NFL quarterbacks: PearsonÃ¢â¬â¢s correlation coefficients for all variables in the study were run and are presented in the table below: |Ã |PCT |YDS |TD |INT |RAT |Salary | |PCT |1 | | | | | | |YDS |0. 43677 |1 | | | | | |TD |0. 230412 |0. 843951 |1 | | | | |INT |-0. 31751 |0. 475031 |0. 247018 |1 | | | |RAT |0. 639073 |0. 45897 |0. 703364 |-0. 41675 |1 | | |2008 Salary |0. 211532 |0. 562896 |0. 428047 |0. 276031 |0. 265671 |1 | As can be seen in the above table the strongest correlation exists between salary and total yards passing (0. 562896) and the number of touchdowns (0. 428047). The other variables have very weak relationships between themselves and salary and will be excluded from further analysis. It seems that only total passing yards is an important variable in understanding the relationship between quarterbackÃ¢â¬â¢s salary and on field performance. A second part of the study is to use a regression model to predict the next periods salary for free agents and other players whose contracts are up for negotiation. It could be a valuable tool in beginning negotiations between the player and team owner. Since only two variables had anything more than a very weak relationship with salary, two regressions will be run. The first is a simple linear regression with yards passing as the independent variable and the second is a multiple regression with number of touchdowns included. The regression analysis is presented below: Simple linear regression using yards: |Regression Statistics | | | | |Multiple R |0. 62896387 | | | | |R Square |0. 316852343 | | | | |Observations |22 | | | | | | | | | | |Ã |Coefficients |Standard Error |t Stat |P-value | |Intercept |-1267325. 07 |1976273. 783 |-0. 64127 |0. 528628 | |YDS |1839. 467659 |603. 9569583 |3. 045693 |0. 006383 | Multiple regression using yards and touchdowns: |Regression Statistics | | | | |Multiple R |0. 569677436 | | | | |R Square |0. 24532381 | | | | |Observations |22 | | | | | | | | | | |Ã |Coefficients |Standard Error |t Stat |P-value | |In tercept |-1596606. 7 |2137031. 816 |-0. 747114146 |0. 464141 | |YDS |2290. 32518 |1148. 639878 |1. 993690591 |0. 060741 | |TD |-50963. 9896 |109649. 6343 |0. 464789417 |0. 647365 | The multiple regression will be excluded from use because the sign of the coefficient is negative, implying that the more touchdowns thrown the lower the salary. This is not logical. The most likely cause is that relationship between total yards passing and touchdowns is stronger than the correlation between touchdowns and salary. This could cause the regression coefficient for touchdowns to be unreliable. The regression equation provides only marginal explanatory power, based on the R square this equation using total yards only explains 31. 68% of salary for an NFL quarterback leaving over 68% of salary unexplained. It usefulness as a tool in negotiation would seem to be very limited. NFL running backs: PearsonÃ¢â¬â¢s correlation coefficients for all variables in the study were run and are presented in the table below Ã |YDS |AVG |TD |FUM |Salary | |YDS |1 | | | | | |AVG |0. 196119 |1 | | | | |TD |0. 382323 |0. 466749 |1 | | | |FUM |0. 017765 |0. 069592 |-0. 31995 |1 | | |Salary |0. 571773 |0. 260196 |0. 38083 |-0. 05109 |1 | Only the total yards gained seem to have anything but a weak relationship with salary. The number of touchdowns being somewhat explanatory of salary and will be used in the multiple regression. Since only two variables had anything more than a very weak relationship with salary, two regressions will be run. The first is a simple linear regression with yards rushing as the independent variable and the second is a multiple regression with number of touchdowns included as well. The regression analysis is presented below: Simple linear regression using yards: Regression Statistics | | | | |Multiple R |0. 57177269 | | | | |R Square |0. 326924009 | | | | | | | | | | |Ã |Coefficients |Standard Error |t Stat |P-value | |Intercept |-1273523. 69 |1812128. 448 |-0. 702777759 |0. 496798 | |YDS |3659. 184626 |1583. 057254 |2. 311467016 |0. 041192 | Multiple regression using yards and touchdowns: |Regression Statistics | | | | |Multiple R |0. 598119739 | | | | |R Square |0. 57747222 | | | | |Ob servations |13 | | | | | | | | | | |Ã |Coefficients |Standard Error |t Stat |P-value | |Intercept |-1191870. 48 |1860286. 025 |-0. 64069 |0. 536128 | |YDS |3194. 299878 |1755. 207634 |1. 819899 |0. 098793 | |TD |64585. 6109 |93229. 10033 |0. 692765 |0. 504227 | The multiple regression will be used since it is marginally better in explanatory power than the simple regression model The regression equation provides only marginal explanatory power, based on the R square this equation using total yards only explains 35. 77% of salary for an NFL quarterback leaving over 64% of salary unexplained. It usefulness as a tool in negotiation would seem to be very limited. Conclusion While there seems to be a relationship between player salaries and total yardage for both quarterbacks and running backs, the relationship is not very strong. The use of individual statistics does not seem to explain the greatest proportion of player salaries. It does not seem as if trying to use individual performance measures provides much important information on the value of the player to the team as measured by salary. This could be due to a number of issues. Possibly base salary is not the appropriate measure for player compensation. Maybe the owners look at improvement in individual performance measures over time or the average of the performance measures over time. We also need to consider that qualitative factors play a role in player salaries. It could be the so called Ã¢â¬Å"star powerÃ¢â¬ of the player as an entertainment value. Or maybe the owners do not look at the individual statistics but rather the ability of the player to improve overall team performance. Is the owner actually looking at numbers put up by the player or is the owner estimating how many more games can we win by having this player? Sample Data Quarteracks |NAME |PCT |YDS |TD |INT |RAT |salary | |Tom Brady QB, NWE |68. 9 |4806 |50 |8 |117. | |Tomlinson RB, SDG |1474 |4. 7 |15 |0 |$5,750,000 | | Peterson RB, MIN |1341 |5. 6 |12 |4 |$2,821,320 | |Willie Parker RB, PIT |1316 |4. 1 |2 |4 |$2,900,000 | |Jamal Lewis RB, CLE |1304 |4. 4 |9 |4 |$1,400,000 | |E. James RB, ARI |1222 |3. 8 |7 |4 |$5,000,000 | |Fred Taylor RB, JAC |1202 |5. 4 |5 |2 |$4,000,000 | |Thomas Jones RB, NYJ |1119 |3. |1 |2 |$2,000,000 | |M. Lynch RB, BUF |1115 |4 |7 |1 |$2,635,770 | |Frank Gore RB, SFO |1102 |4. 2 |5 |3 |$2,562,000 | |E. Graham RB, TAM |898 |4 |10 |0 |$1,500,000 | |D. Foster RB, CAR |876 |3. 5 |3 |5 |$1,903,120 | |C. Taylor RB, MIN |844 |5. 4 |7 |5 |$3,000,000 | |L. Maroney RB, NWE |835 |4. 5 |6 |0 |$1,571,720 |
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Shift in Architecture essays What made the shift, from the modern machine culture of Corbusier to the new brutalism order of Team 10. Every phase of architecture has to have an anti-phase, where its ideals are opposed. The young architects who grew up with old masters ideals soon became disenchanted with his visions. It can be harsh because a singular vision of utopia can never be achieved. The birth of Team-X is due to these reasons. CIAM, Congres Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne was started in 1928 as a declaration, signed by 24 architects in Europe. Its agenda emphasizes building rather than architecture as the elementary activity of man intimately linked with evolution and the development of human life. It was primary dominated by the idea of individualism at the first three meetings with topics that focused on the ideal, efficient spaces for individuals and the minimum living standards. At the 4th CIAM in 1933, the ideals of Corbusier took over. His visions of the utopian, modernist Machine City thus spread its influence throughout Europe. City planning became the main focal point of the meetings. This in fact would shape social orders throughout the continents. And during his reign as the main idealist of CIAM, it became the custom of architectural students to flock to CIAM, to re-establish contact with the international Modern Movement, to sit at the feet of its great masters and to acquire those non-parochial standards of architectural values. This consequently lead to the birth of Team 10, the younger generation of architects who were involved with CIAM. They wrote We of the younger generation received a shock at the Aix in seeing how far the wonder of the ville radieuse had faded from CIAM. The members of Team 10, Bakema, Candilis, Gutmann, Howell, van Eyck, Voelcker and the Smithsons were tied together by their ideals of reform the old visions of the original members of CIAM, and also th ...
Monday, February 24, 2020
Prophet Mohammed - Essay Example Many are the times that the grandfather was escorted by Mohammed on official duties in the temple. The lonely life of a Sheppard that Mohammed led to the nurturing of the skills required in leading the life of a prophet. In addition, the environment in his early life provided him with the skill set fit to lead and guide people. The reason as to why Mohammed took on prophecy is a blur but at the time, the town of Mecca was filled with many nomadic. These tribes were rivals with each other and they had their own gods and beliefs. This religious diversity at the time was the root of all enmity. At forty years old, Mohammed aspired to become a reformer and hence assumed leadership of a secret society. This organizations goal was to ensure unity in terms of religion and politics among the Arabs. He had come to the realization that with unity comes power. After seeking insight from the Jews and Christians, Mohammed determined that one supreme God was key to achieving his goal of unity amon g the Arabs. After conviction of his call to prophesy, this secret society with its own rules whereby they prayed to one supreme God grew exponentially and is otherwise known as Islam (Margoliouth 86). Mohammed as a prophet had a lot of accomplishments in his time. Hence, he is perceived as one of the greatest people in the Muslim community. He is the founder of the Islamic religion. At a time when there were numerous religious groups each having their own gods among the Arabic people, Mohammed was able to unite the Arabs by forming a secret society. This secret society later became publicized and became the Islamic community. Islam spread out exponentially throughout Mecca whereby they spread the ideology of worshipping and praying to one supreme God. Islam has become a way of life in our society among the Muslim community. It has lead to the peaceful coexistence of people due. This is because Islam gives an individual a sense of inner peace, which results to one having peace of mi nd. The Islamic religion preaches the need to have peaceful relation people of different ethnicities and religious backgrounds. This, as a result, promotes world peace. Islam is also seen to promote peace between an individual and his creator. This paves way for having a blessed life free from sin. Islamic religion is also important because it advocates for submission to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will. Submitting to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will translate to submitting to God, which is the reason to the founding of the Islamic religion. The Islamic religion and culture supports the union in marriage between Muslims in the society. It is GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will that man and woman join together in the bond of marriage; the Islamic religion is seen to fulfill this will of God by supporting marriage. It also provides guidance to married couples, which promote long lasting relationships. Above all traits, Islam has promoted unity among people. This unity has come to realization as a result of Islam spreading the messa ge of peace throughout. This has paid off owing to the fact that Islam has spread widely to all corners of the world. Hence, Muslims have been able to coexist peacefully with other religious groups promoting world peace (murata and Chittick 125). Mohammed had become the leader of a vast community; Islam looked up to him for guidance. With Islam becoming a religion that spread vastly throughout the world, there arose the need to create a distinguished place whereby the Islamic